The original proposal has been
derived from the Lombardy
LR 17/2000 (see cielobuio.org/arc-lrl17a.php
for more info); this
in turn is based on the experience with the older laws of another
Italian regions (and consequently on the extensive Italian practice in
preventing the light pollution). Compared to the Lombardy law,
second version of the draft of the statutory order
omitted or made less
strict many measures, also the diction is made simpler.
A simple definition of ``one lighting point'' has been introduced, as a
sphere with a radius of 2 m around the light source.
In September 2002 the proposal has been supplemented by explicit
upper limits for the amount of light, as they are contained in the
laws of Italian regions Lazio and Marche (and in the
deliberation of the Council of Lombardy). The present base
information source is the
brochure on the application of the Lombardy law 17/00
Limits valid also for billboards with internal lighting are added
The fourth version mentions the
illuminance apart from luminance in point ``c'' (just a technical
detail) and gives the minimum acceptable utilances for
roads and footpaths in a remark to the point ``b''.
The obligation to declare the properties and proper use of luminaires
has been shifted from a separate old article 5 to the remark on point ``a'',
and supplemented by a possibility that the declaration can be made
by the planner instead (this is just because the
Order cannot give any new obligations which are not envisaged in the law
The demand that the lit buildings should not have luminances
exceeding those of the surrounding lit surfaces
(as in the above mentioned Italian rules)
has been added to the art. 6.
All the new installations of illuminating systems in the
outdoor air, as well as the adaptations of the existing systems, have
to satisfy the rules for the prevention of light pollution according
to this paragraph. This applies as well to changes, which are in the
phase of planning or contract. Those, which are in the phase of
execution already, have to satisfy the requirements of this paragraph
before the end of the year 2003.
Only those illumination systems which conform to the following rules,
are considered as producing no light pollution and minimising also another
pollution of the air:
they are composed of luminaires which
do not shine into the upper half-space1
they use the best available technology,3
they are realized in such a way that
the illumination of the target surfaces
(in sense of their illuminance or luminance)
does not exceed the value demanded
by the safety standards, if they exist,5
or the value 1 cd/m2, in the absence of safety standards,
and they are equipped by the devices capable of reducing the amount of
emitted light by at least thirty per cent compared to the full output,
after 12 p.m. Such reduction of the amount of light is applied
when the conditions of the use of the illuminated surface are such, that
the safety is not endangered.
Requirements of the Article 2 need not be
adhered to for light sources (bulbs) with a luminous flux not exceeding
1500 lumen, if they are at most three in one lighting point6
or if their cumulative luminous flux into the upper half-space
is below 2250 lm for one lighting point,
and for such temporarily7
used sources, which are not in use after 10 p.m. in the season of
the daylight saving time validity and after 8 p.m. outside the season of
the daylight saving time validity.
Illumination of any information boards8
has to be realized just by sending light downwards or by light sources placed
inside the board.
The maximum allowed luminous intensity is 100 cd for boards with
an area of 1 m2 and lower, the maximum allowed luminance is
1 cd/m2 for board with an area of 1000 m2 and larger.9
boards with an area
S between one and one thousand square metres,
their mean luminance
has not to be over:
L = 100 cd/m2 .
- i.e., their luminous intensity I over:10
I = L/S =
100 cd . (S/1m2)1/3
It is explicitly forbidden to use, for merely promotion purposes,
any upward aimed, movable or fixed, bundles of rays of any type.
For the illumination of edifices or monuments,
systems shining downwards
have to be preferred. Only when it is not technically possible, in
case of objects of particular and proven architectonic
value, another type of lighting can be used.
In such a case, the
margin of the beam has to remain at least one metre below the upper
end of the
surface to be illuminated and within the perimeter of that building
The illuminating system has to be equipped with a suitable device to
limit the dispersion of light outside the surface to be illuminated
and it has to be switched off or dimmed at least by one half not
later then at 1 a.m. during the validity of the daylight saving time
or 0 a.m. outside the validity of the daylight saving time.
The mean luminance of the lit surface
should not be higher than the mean luminance of the surrounding
lit surfaces and is never allowed to be over 1 cd/m2.
Considering that the time span for lowering the light pollution
by a mere reconstruction of the lighting systems acc. to § 1 is given
by the lifetime of such systems amounting to decades, there are
declared, in the emergency cases, areas with terms for improving
the current state (further just protected areas).
Protected areas are declared in particular around
Protected areas declared by the effective date of this Order are given
in the Appendix.
It is upon the subject, for whose interest the protected area has been
declared by the Government,
to announce this fact to the
concerned municipalities and operators of light sources.
Protected area can be declared on their territory by the
the municipal authorities, within their delegated competences.
All luminaires which do not satisfy the rules
of the § 1 have to be replaced or adapted in such a way, that
they satisfy the rules of the § 1, within four years from the
declaration of the protected area.
An exception is granted to existing luminaires, whose replacement is not
planned within four years, and whose adaptation in such a way, that they
would not emit light into the upper half-space, is not well achievable.
Instead of their replacement by fully shielded luminaires they can be
equipped by suitable shields directing their luminous flux toward the earth
and limiting their specific luminous intensity into the upper half-space
up to at most 15 cd per thousand lumen.
Another solution can be negotiated between the municipality and the
subject, for whose interest the protected area has been
All kinds of the information boards, which have no specific and
indispensable nighttime purpose, have to be non-illuminated
after 11 p.m. in the season of
the daylight saving time validity and after 10 p.m. outside the season of
the daylight saving time validity.
Persons, including the municipalities which have not complied
with the criteria demanded by this Order in the protected areas, are
suspended of the benefit of a special electricity tariff for
public lighting, until they bring their lighting systems in
accord with this Order. The resolution about that is issued by the
regional authority, within its delegated competences, after a
preceding inspection based on the announcement of the subject, for
whose interest the protected area has been declared. The regional
authority submits the information on such a resolution to the
competent supplier of electricity with the demand to make a new
agreement on the supply with the concerned person.
Subjects, where the protected area is declared with a radius
of 10 km around them:
Observatory of the Astronomical Institute of the Academy of
Sciences of Czech Republic, Ondrejov
Observatory of the Obs. and Planetarium in Ceské
Subjects, where the protected area is declared with a radius
of 1 km around them:
Observatories of the N. Copernicus Obs. and Planetarium in Brno
and the Astronomical Institute of the Masaryk University, Brno
Štefánik Observatory, Prague
Observatory, Valašské Mezirící
Johann Palisa Observatory and Planetarium, Ostrava
Observatory and Planetarium, Hradec Králové
The above listed protected areas will serve as model ones for
the implementation of this Order. Their enlargement
and a series of new ones, esp. around another observatories
accessible to public, should be declared later.
Hvězdárna a planetárium M. Koperníka v Brně
Nov 8, 2002 (translated into English Nov 15, 2002)
- ... half-space1
- As a upper
half-space, usually the directions over the horizontal plane going
through the luminaire are considered. In case of a sloped terrain,
it can be understood as the directions over the plane parallel with
the terrain or over a plane with a slope lying between these two extrema.
As a luminaire which do not shine into such directions, even each such
can be considered, whose specific luminous intensity in these directions,
after being rounded to a whole number, is just 0 cd per thousand lumen
of the luminous flux emitted by the light source (bulb) inside the luminaire.
Such a luminaire is called ``fully shielded''.
- This property of the luminaire and the way of mounting it
so that it does not shine into the upper half-space can be given
on the product and in its instructions for use by the producer, importer or
or they have to be explicitly given by the planner of illumination
- ... technology,3
- as defined in the § 2 Art. 1 of the Act
- at the moment of this Order becoming effective, it means among other,
in case of illuminating roads and footpaths,
that the the proportion of the light flux from the luminaires
which hits the road or path, is higher than
for path widths
and higher than 0.6 for those broader than ten metres.
- ... exist,5
- as such standards, prEN 132 01-1 to -3 (or
CSN 36 0400, 0410 and 0411 in the meantime) can be considered;
for the systems whose luminous flux cannot be regulated continuously it is
allowed that the condition of not exceeding the luminances demanded by such standards
is satisfied only at the end of their planned life
- ... point6
- for the purpose of this Order, by lighting point the area with a radius
of two metres around the light source is meant
- ... temporarily7
- maximum three months
- ... boards8
- any surface serving for advertisement is considered to be an information board
- ... larger.9
- Moreover, for such large boards the same rule holds as for the
buildings acc. to the art. 6,
namely that their average luminance should not be larger than the
average luminance of the surrounding illuminated areas
- ... over:10
- the rounded upper limits are therefore