|LP181V2.5.1.doc.zip||18-Apr-2009 21:41||767K||mandatory limitation|
|LP181V2.5.1.pdf||09-Apr-2009 17:00||849K||mandatory limitation|
|crime/||04-Oct-2010 21:18||-||(lighting and crime)|
|lp165.doc||11-Aug-2003 00:00||104K||(in-ground tree lig.)|
|lp165.htm||15-Sep-2006 00:00||74K||(in-ground tree lig.)|
|lp165.pdf||11-Aug-2003 00:00||191K||(in-ground tree lig.)|
|lp181.pdf||09-Apr-2009 17:00||849K||(symlink to a new v.)|
|lp181a.pdf||09-Apr-2009 17:00||849K||(symlink to a new v.)|
|lp181b.pdf||09-Apr-2009 17:00||849K||(symlink to a new v.)|
|lp181c.pdf||09-Apr-2009 17:00||849K||(symlink to a new v.)|
"Author's explanatory note of 2003-08-12:
This document was prepared for the City of Yarra, a local council in a suburban area of Melbourne, capital of the State of Victoria in Australia. The name comes from the Yarra River, Melbourne's main river.
Since this document was submitted to the council, the author has collected three more accounts of individuals staring into in-ground floodlights. This has strengthened the case for some of the material presented here to be recast as a journal paper in due course."
accidents, artificial skyglow, astronomy, breast cancer, crime, greenhouse gas, light nuisance, light pollution, light trespass, obesity, outdoor lighting, sleep disturbance, sustainability
The great value of artificial outdoor lighting has largely obscured the social, ecological and environmental problems resulting from present lighting practice. Exponential growth of outdoor lighting has been observed in many countries. It is unsustainable and greatly at odds with the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Artificial skyglow resulting largely from wasteful lighting design and overuse of lighting is increasingly hampering astronomical research, recreation and education and destroying indigenous cultural heritage. Stray light entering bedrooms at night disturbs sleep and contributes to sleepiness and fatigue, known factors in traffic and industrial accidents. Exposure to artificial light at night is a substantial risk factor for prostate and breast cancers, and it appears to be a contributing factor in the obesity epidemic. Outdoor lighting does not inhibit crime but increases it. Even faint light pollution can degrade habitat and affect the food chain over large areas. Drastic reductions in outdoor ambient light levels from all sources, in some indoor lighting and in the associated energy use are justified and will require legislation to be achieved. Present lighting practice needs to be completely rethought. Architecture and urban design need to change course accordingly.